HIPS Publications

Productive labor and Employment Creation for Somalia : key challenges and strategies

Labor in Somalia can be divided into four historical phases: pre-colonial society, the colonial era, the postcolonial era and state collapse phase. In the pre-colonial period, animal husbandry and small-scale farming were the economic backbone of Somali society. Pastoralists herded livestock, moving from one place to another in search of pasture and water. The division of labor was most visible in nomadic communities. Young men and boys herded camels while women and girls looked after flocks of goats and sheep and made household items and erected collapsible huts.

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Somalia’s Education Sector:Fostering Skills Through A Demand Driven Education System

Education is one of the most important determinants for an individual’s productivity and future success, and is also one of the key drivers of economic development. The overarching objectives of this assessment are to review the current state of the education sector in Somalia, identify the key challenges it is facing and suggest strategic interventions based on evidence drawn from rigorous qualitative findings.
The report begins with a discussion of the history and current context of education in Somalia, covering the period from the pre-colonial era to the aftermath of the prolonged civil war. Somalia has experienced five distinct education transformations: the advent of Islamic education; the
introduction of missionary schools in the colonial period; and educational reform in the years after it achieved independence; the era of state collapse; and the revival period marked by intensive interventions from private educationists.

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Somalia’s Agriculture and Livestock Sectors:A Baseline Study And A Human Capital Development Strategy

As Somalia transitions from more than three decades of conflict to partial stability in many parts of the country, there is an opportunity for sustainable development. The national stocks of natural resources (fertile
soil, livestock, fisheries, minerals, oil and gas) hold opportunities not only to improve living standards and food security for the population of nearly 16 million,1 but also to provide a platform for advancing human
capacity in trades, skills and technologies.

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Dysfunctional federalism: How political division, constitutional ambiguity and a unitary mindset thwart equitable distribution of power in Somalia

Article 1 of Somalia’s provisional constitution states that “Somalia is a federal state.” Article 3 (3) stipulates that “the federal republic of Somalia is founded upon the fundamental principles of power-sharing in a federal system.” In the spirit of collaborative federalism, Article 51 (2) underscores that “every government shall respect and protect the limits of its powers and the powers of other governments.” Despite these clearly worded constitutional guidelines, conflict is rife between the federal government of Somalia (FGS) and the Federal Member States (FMSs) and the rift is still widening. Over the past three years, the federalism discourse has been characterized by confrontation rather than collaboration. Failure to reach consensus on a power-sharing model has hampered progress on all other issues of national importance, including security, stabilization, institution building, reconciliation, provision of services, peace building, international relations and resource mobilization.

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Finding a Way Out of Somalia’s Manmade Electoral Crisis

We at HIPS strongly believe that the window of opportunity is rapidly closing. We propose two courses
of action to arrest an electoral crisis and find a pathway to truly inclusive solutions based on a workable
compromise among the key stakeholders.

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Somalia Fisheries: Untapped Potential Held Back by Skills Shortage

Somalia is endowed with diverse and rich fisheries resources thanks to its highly productive coastal and upwelling systems. The national fisheries sector is still underdeveloped but is nevertheless very important as
it provides food, livelihood, income and employment opportunities for over 400,000 Somalis who directly or indirectly engage in various activities in the fisheries value chain and related services.1 It is also a major
source of protein for many internally displaced persons (IDPs) and other urban poor (especially those living in coastal areas) who cannot afford the basic traditional staples of meat and milk due to high inflation. At the
national level, the fisheries sector generates $135 million in value per year, which is equivalent to around two percent of gross domestic product (GDP

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Somalia’s Healthcare System: A Baseline Study & Human Capital Development Strategy

Over the past three decades, Somalia has been an arena for endless armed conflict and natural disasters.The consequences of these events on the health sector in general and the health workforce, in particular, have been devastating, affecting the entire health service delivery. This study, commissioned by the Heritage Institute for Policy Studies (HIPS) and City […]

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Expanded Participation Model: Alternative for Somalia’s 2020 One-Person One-Vote Plan

On 21 February 2020, the President of Somalia,
Mohamed Abdullahi (Farmaajo), signed into law the long-awaited electoral bill that has been in the making for years. The leaders of the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) celebrated the signing of the bill as a historic achievement, because the law should, in theory, allow citizens to directly elect their representatives in the parliament for the first time since 1969. Moreover, the law was designed to be implemented during parliamentary election scheduled for later this year, and presidential election early next year

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State of Somalia (SOS) Report

The State of Somalia (SOS) Report focuses on the main developments and key trends in politics, security, economy, social services and the role of external actors from 1 January to 31 December 2019. The objective of the report is to: empirically and systemically document key events in Somalia; provide analysis and context to policymakers, academics and the general public; and support peace building and state building efforts in Somalia. During the reporting period, the political situation was characterized by major upheavals and a deepening rift between the Federal Government of Somalia (FGS) and Federal Member States (FMS). Four out of the five states[1] held (or are still holding) elections which the FGS saw as an opportunity to influence, and, if possible, replace the often-hostile state leaders with loyalists who would implement its vision across the country

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The Galmudug Crisis: A Blueprint For Sustainable Settlement

The prospects of a permanent peace or prolonged conflicts are both potentially high in Galmudug. Notwithstanding the political booby traps, there is still a rare window of opportunity to find a comprehensive settlement to the political crises that has paralyzed Galmudug for years. Luckily, some key actors in the state seem to understand the importance of holding free, fair and democratic elections in the near future.

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