HIPS Reports

As part of its mission to inform and influence public policy, the Heritage Institute for Policy Studies (HIPS) will produce a number reports each year focusing on major public policy issues. These reports are aimed at enhancing public understanding of the issues and making policy-relevant recommendations.

Our reports will vary in scope and depth given our wide area of expertise. From security and justice sector reform to federalism, state-building and the constitution, our highly qualified staff and experts will tackle various issues.

We will use these reports to generate a public discourse on policy matters.And while we will make recommendations based on our findings, we will engage relevant actors to enhance better understanding of the subjects we cover on a regular basis.

Finally, our reports are attempting to offer a Somali narrative to public policy issues. As a national research institution, we firmly believe that solutions to some of the toughest issues facing Somalia can only come from within.

Rebuilding Somalia’s Broken Justice System : Fixing the Politics, Policies and Procedures

Despite recent reforms, the formal justice system in Somalia is broken at the core, depriving equitable access to justice for millions of citizens. More than 10 years with no judicial system (1990- 2000) followed by 20 years of weak statutory courts (2000-2020) have had a profoundly deleterious
impact on the nation’s deeply decentralized judicial branch. As a result, a buffet of justice systems and alternative dispute mechanisms have flourished across the country, leading citizens to shop for the most favorable outcomes. This is compounded by a deep contestation over the interpretation of the provisional constitution and the ambiguous framework to establish the two most important judicial institutions: the Judicial Services Commission (JSC) and the Constitutional Court of Somalia
(CCoS). The federal parliament has yet to formally federalize the judicial branch as stipulated by the provisional constitution.

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Human Capital Development Strategy for Somalia

The last 20 years have been characterized by slow but steady recovery and a modest
reconstitution of state institutions, including the adoption of a contested and unsettled
federal governance structure. There is much to be optimistic about Somalia’s recovery
despite the protracted instability. This human capital development strategy is anchored
on Somalia’s fragile realities and its success hinges upon the ushering in of a conducive
enabling environment. The human capital development strategy aims to provide a
framework to transform the knowledge and skills of the Somali workforce and help to
develop an empowered and healthy Somali population with the necessary skills and
attitudes for productive sector driven and sustainable economic development.

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The Economic Impacts of Covid-19 on Somalia

The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted Somalia’s economy though the country is expected to narrowly escape a recession owing to the limited number of infections and modest mitigation measures taken by the government. However, the country’s economic recovery is still at risk. Gross domestic product (GDP) growth is estimated to contract to 2.5% in 2020, down from 2.9% in the previous year, due to the pandemic and a number of associated issues such as declining remittances, reduced aggregate demand, disrupted supply chains and reductions in labor supply. The pandemic has also had an especially negative impact on the aviation sector, trade and fiscal revenue and moderately increased inflation in the first half of 2020.

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Somalia: Preserving the Integrity of the Election

There are plenty of reasons to believe that the current FGS and FMS administrations are attempting to replicate the 2016 playbook, hoping that the results will be different this time. Their actions are doing significant damage to the credibility and legitimacy of Somalia’s entire electoral system and further cementing the apathy of Somalis towards their country’s democratic experiment. Preserving the faith of the Somali people in their electoral system should be a cornerstone of the peacebuilding and statebuilding agenda

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Productive labor and Employment Creation for Somalia : key challenges and strategies

Labor in Somalia can be divided into four historical phases: pre-colonial society, the colonial era, the postcolonial era and state collapse phase. In the pre-colonial period, animal husbandry and small-scale farming were the economic backbone of Somali society. Pastoralists herded livestock, moving from one place to another in search of pasture and water. The division of labor was most visible in nomadic communities. Young men and boys herded camels while women and girls looked after flocks of goats and sheep and made household items and erected collapsible huts.

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Somalia’s Education Sector:Fostering Skills Through A Demand Driven Education System

Education is one of the most important determinants for an individual’s productivity and future success, and is also one of the key drivers of economic development. The overarching objectives of this assessment are to review the current state of the education sector in Somalia, identify the key challenges it is facing and suggest strategic interventions based on evidence drawn from rigorous qualitative findings.
The report begins with a discussion of the history and current context of education in Somalia, covering the period from the pre-colonial era to the aftermath of the prolonged civil war. Somalia has experienced five distinct education transformations: the advent of Islamic education; the
introduction of missionary schools in the colonial period; and educational reform in the years after it achieved independence; the era of state collapse; and the revival period marked by intensive interventions from private educationists.

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Somalia’s Agriculture and Livestock Sectors:A Baseline Study And A Human Capital Development Strategy

As Somalia transitions from more than three decades of conflict to partial stability in many parts of the country, there is an opportunity for sustainable development. The national stocks of natural resources (fertile
soil, livestock, fisheries, minerals, oil and gas) hold opportunities not only to improve living standards and food security for the population of nearly 16 million,1 but also to provide a platform for advancing human
capacity in trades, skills and technologies.

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Dysfunctional federalism: How political division, constitutional ambiguity and a unitary mindset thwart equitable distribution of power in Somalia

Article 1 of Somalia’s provisional constitution states that “Somalia is a federal state.” Article 3 (3) stipulates that “the federal republic of Somalia is founded upon the fundamental principles of power-sharing in a federal system.” In the spirit of collaborative federalism, Article 51 (2) underscores that “every government shall respect and protect the limits of its powers and the powers of other governments.” Despite these clearly worded constitutional guidelines, conflict is rife between the federal government of Somalia (FGS) and the Federal Member States (FMSs) and the rift is still widening. Over the past three years, the federalism discourse has been characterized by confrontation rather than collaboration. Failure to reach consensus on a power-sharing model has hampered progress on all other issues of national importance, including security, stabilization, institution building, reconciliation, provision of services, peace building, international relations and resource mobilization.

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Finding a Way Out of Somalia’s Manmade Electoral Crisis

We at HIPS strongly believe that the window of opportunity is rapidly closing. We propose two courses
of action to arrest an electoral crisis and find a pathway to truly inclusive solutions based on a workable
compromise among the key stakeholders.

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Somalia Fisheries: Untapped Potential Held Back by Skills Shortage

Somalia is endowed with diverse and rich fisheries resources thanks to its highly productive coastal and upwelling systems. The national fisheries sector is still underdeveloped but is nevertheless very important as
it provides food, livelihood, income and employment opportunities for over 400,000 Somalis who directly or indirectly engage in various activities in the fisheries value chain and related services.1 It is also a major
source of protein for many internally displaced persons (IDPs) and other urban poor (especially those living in coastal areas) who cannot afford the basic traditional staples of meat and milk due to high inflation. At the
national level, the fisheries sector generates $135 million in value per year, which is equivalent to around two percent of gross domestic product (GDP

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